This is a “punch card” designed by Herman Hollerith to tabulate mortality statistics for the city of Baltimore in 1887. Hollerith used an electrical machine he invented to compile the information punched out along the edges. This coding system was inspired by the way train conductors punched out descriptions of ticket holders along the edges of tickets, as described in this 1887 article from Railway Times:
After the success of his Baltimore work, Hollerith won the contract to tabulate the results of the 1890 U.S. Census, the first big use of an electrical “computer” to compile and analyze data. Hollerith’s company eventually became the International Business Machines (IBM).